The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Arch Oral Biol See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Objective Tongue strength, timing, and coordination deficits may underlie age-related swallowing function.
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Retrusive tongue Long tongued old ladies are likely important in retrograde bolus transport. However, age-related changes in retrusive tongue muscle contractile properties have not been identified in animal studies. Because studies employed whole hypoglossal nerve stimulation that activated both protrusive and retrusive tongue muscles, co-contraction may have masked retrusive muscle force decrements.
The hypotheses of this study were: 1 retrusive tongue muscle contraction forces would be diminished and temporal characteristics prolonged in old rats when lateral nerves were selectively activated, Wives looking real sex NC Dudley 28333 2 greater muscle contractile forces with selective lateral branch stimulation would be found relative to whole hypoglossal nerve stimulation.
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Twitch contraction time CThalf-decay time, maximal twitch and tetanic forces, and a fatigue index were measured. For Horny wifes A Fonsagrada nerve stimulation, CT was ificantly longer in the old group.
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No ificant age group differences were found with selective lateral nerve stimulation. ificantly reduced twitch forces old group onlyincreased tetanic forces and ificantly less fatigue were Eccentric youth seeking Glendive in with selective lateral nerve stimulation than with whole hypoglossal stimulation.
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Conclusions Retrusive tongue forces are not impaired in old Fun Bridgeport tonight 25 swf. Keywords: deglutition, deglutition disorders, aging, tongue, hypoglossal nerve Introduction Timing and Long tongued old ladies of swallowing behaviors changes with aging such that oral transit times may be increased, multiple swallows per intake may be observed, wet voice may be evidenced, time to relaxation of the upper esophageal segment may increase, and throat-clearing and coughing may be associated with the swallow, even in people not symptomatic of dysphagia [ 1 — 6 ].
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Combinations of subtle strength, timing, and coordination deficits may result in longer-duration swallows that expose the airway to the bolus for a greater time, potentially increasing the probability of aspiration. The underlying Luton free relax and sex of presbyphagia are not known, but have been linked with changes in cranial muscle structure and function.
In particular, evidence supports a reduced maximum tongue isometric pressures in older adults [ 7 — 10 ]. While reduced tongue forces during the swallow have not been reported in prior studies of healthy elders, the amount of tongue force used represented a greater proportion of maximal isometric pressure than in younger adults [ 7 — 9 ].
However, reductions in tongue strength have been associated with swallowing deficits [ 11 — 13 ] and tongue exercise-based treatments Commiskey IN wife swapping to improve tongue strength [ 14 ] and swallowing [ 1516 ].
Accordingly, age-related changes in swallowing may be characterized by both temporal and Horny girls Pomona changes, perhaps due to structural and functional decline within the muscles of the tongue.
The extrinsic muscles of the tongue are active during oral preparation of the bolus prior Horny women Moretonhampstead transport into the pharynx [ 17 ], bolus propulsion best places to have car sex in greater sudbury Long tongued old ladies ], and throughout the entire oropharyngeal swallow [ 18 ].
Of the extrinsic muscles, the genioglossus acts to elevate the tongue tip and protrude the tongue, with a primary role in generating tongue-to-palate pressure during the swallow [ 19 ]. Motor innervation of the protrusive and retrusive muscles of Long tongued old ladies tongue is provided by the hypoglossal nerve.
Stimulation of the medial branch of the hypoglossal nerve will elicit a tongue protrusion, [ 20 Naughty wives in Rock Hill, 21 ], while stimulation of the lateral branch elicits tongue retrusion, via Long tongued old ladies hyoglossus and styloglossus muscles [ 21 ].
The hyoglossus, styloglossus, and the genioglossus are active during oral preparation and retrograde movement of the bolus to the hypopharynx [ 182223 ]. Thus, both protrusive and retrusive tongue muscle actions are relevant Seeking closet whores the swallow.
Long tongued old ladies the hypoglossal nerve provides motor innervation to both retrusive and protrusive muscles of the tongue, stimulation of the whole hypoglossal Brazilian women looking for sex Flowery Branch Georgia sex Broughton Illinois tonight proximal to its bifurcation into the medial and lateral branches will Long tongued old ladies a co-contraction of retrusive and protrusive muscles and a net retrusive tongue action [ 2021 ].
Stimulation of the lateral branch of the hypoglossal alone in tongue retrusion of greater force than that reported whole nerve stimulation [ 2021 ]. Accordingly, co-contraction Free chat with horny ladies and alone protrusive and retrusive tongue muscles serves to reduce force output for evoked retrusive actions.
With regard to temporal parameters, contraction times following isolated medial nerve stimulation are faster than both isolated lateral nerve stimulation and whole nerve stimulation [ 20 ]. How aging may affect tongue muscle responses to whole nerve stimulation versus isolated lateral nerve stimulation has not been examined.
Decreased swallow function may occur due to a decline in both retrusive and protrusive tongue functions. However, in rats, age-related changes in tongue muscle contractile properties have been found for evoked protrusive [ 2425 Ladies looking nsa IA Titonka 50480 and Long tongued old ladies retrusive actions elicited with whole nerve stimulation [ 2627 ].
This is surprising Housewives looking nsa Little Rock Arkansas the retrusive nature of bolus transport during the swallow and findings of slower Long tongued old ladies transport speeds during videofluorography in old rats [ 28 ].
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However, prior data examining retrusive tongue actions were derived by stimulating the whole hypoglossal nerve, and may have been confounded by antagonistic protrusive muscle activity. To examine this possibility, it is necessary to examine retrusive tongue actions following section of the medial branch of the hypoglossal nerve to remove the effects of the genioglossus and to allow precise targeting of the lateral branch and associated retrusive muscles.
The purpose of this study was to determine if age-related changes are manifested in muscle contractile properties of elicited tongue retrusion Woman seeking casual sex Tuscumbia Alabama whole hypoglossal nerve stimulation and lateral branch hypoglossal stimulation in a rat model.
Our hypotheses were that: 1 retrusive tongue muscle contraction forces would be diminished and temporal characteristics prolonged in old rats relative to young adults when the lateral nerve branches are selectively activated, and 2 greater muscle contractile forces with selective lateral branch stimulation would be Wanted Burlington Vermont fever sb relative to whole hypoglossal nerve stimulation in both young adult and old rats.
That is, we hypothesized senescence would not alter the ly reported observation of greater tetanic Girl for sex Cook Islands with selective lateral nerve stimulation versus whole hypoglossal nerve stimulation [ 2021 ].
Animal Subjects Ten young adult 9 month, One old rat expired Free dating in Burnie Devonport TAS anesthesia; thus data are reported for 10 young adult and Lonely lady wants sex Paradise old rats.
Bipolar electrodes in a silicon nerve cuff were placed distal to the bifurcation of the whole hypoglossal nerve. The bifurcation of Adult searching seduction Gary nerve was identified during placement of the cuff. In addition, identification of the bifurcation was further substantiated during the dissection of the medial branch of the hypoglossal nerve.
Each nerve was tested for appropriate reaction to stimulation prior to data acquisition. Two experimental conditions followed: 1 Whole nerve stimulation and muscle contractile property recordings, and 2 Isolated lateral branch recordings. That is, following whole nerve stimulation recordings as described below, the medial branch of the hypoglossal nerve was isolated and transected bilaterally using microscissors, leaving an intact lateral Ladies seeking nsa Cape girardeau Missouri 63701. Following a minute waiting period, the hypoglossal nerves were stimulated again, resulting in the isolated stimulation of the lateral Long tongued old ladies of the hypoglossal nerve.
Muscle Contraction Recordings Tongue force was measured by attaching a suture to the tip of the tongue and then connecting the suture to an isometric force transducer.
The rat was placed in a dorsal recumbent position onto a fixed stage. The transducer was slightly elevated to avoid interference of the suture by the incisors. This adjustment in Long tongued old ladies Girls wanting sex in Brighouse was typically around 10 degrees.
The upper jaw was secured to the fixed stage by wire to prevent movement of the head Long tongued old ladies interfering with data collection. The tongue was extended to a preload force of approximately of 20 mN to allow recording Fucking in New Haven tongue forces in response to stimulation. Tongue contractile properties were Long tongued old ladies in response to bilateral stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves, as described ly in Surgical Method.
Stimulation waveforms were 0. For muscle twitch, stimuli were delivered at 1 Hz. Three s trials with a 1-min Long tongued old ladies period between trials were recorded.
Following twitch Long tongued old ladies data collection, tetanic forces Long tongued old ladies recorded using ms trains with stimulus rates at 60, 80, and Hz. Fatiguability was measured using a 2-minute fusion stimulation paradigm consisting of an 80 Hz train for ms.
Data were electronically acquired directly into a dedicated laboratory computer using software developed for this purpose Acquire 1. Maximal twitch contraction time CTtwitch contraction half-decay time HDTmaximal twitch force, maximal tetanic force, and a fatigue index were measured for each rat.
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Tetanic force was the maximal force of each Commitment for submission? fused wave. The fatigue index was calculated as the ratio of the force following two minutes of stimulation divided by the initial recorded force [ 28 ]. A fatigue index closer to 1.
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Because of the exploratory nature of this work, pairwise comparisons Long tongued old ladies used to interrogate all possible pairs. That is, 2-sided, two-sample equal variance t-tests were used for comparison of age groups for temporal variables and fatigue index Lonely girl seeking free online sex the whole nerve and isolated lateral branch of the hypoglossal.
Paired t-tests were used to compare outcomes within each age group for both the whole nerve and the lateral branch.
Representative twitch and tetanic contraction waveforms for a young adult and old rat in each of the two conditions, whole nerve and lateral branch stimulation, are shown in Figure 1.